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GMAT阅读笔记整理

2018-11-30 16:50

来源:新东方在线

作者:

  Twoopposing scenarios, the “arboreal” hypothesis and the “cursorial” hypothesis, have traditionally been put forward concerning the originsof bird flight. The“arboreal” hypothesis holds that bird ancestors began to flyby climbing treesand gliding down from branches withthe help of incipient feathers: the height oftrees provides a good starting place for launching flight, especially through gliding. As feathers became larger over time,flapping flight evolvedand birds finally became fullyair-borne. This hypothesis makes intuitive sense, butcertain aspects are troubling. Archaeopteryx (the earliest known bird) and its maniraptoran dinosaur cousins have no obviously arborealadaptations, suchas feet fully adapted for perching.Perhaps some of them could climb trees, but noconvincing analysis has demonstrated how Archaeopteryx would have both climbed and flown with its forelimbs, and there were noplants taller than afew meters in the environments whereArchaeopteryx fossils have been found. Even ifthe animals could climb trees, this ability is not synonymous with gliding ability. (Many small animals, and even some goats andkangaroos, are capable ofclimbing trees but are not gliders.)Besides, Archaeopteryx shows no obvious featuresof gliders, such as a broad membrane connecting forelimbs and hindlimbs.

  The“cursorial” (running) hypothesis holds that small dinosaurs ran alongthe groundand stretched out their arms forbalance as they leaped into the air after insectprey or, perhaps, to avoid predators. Even rudimentary feathers on forelimbs could have expanded the arm’s surface area toenhance lift slightly.Larger feathers could have increasedlift incrementally, until sustained flight wasgradually achieved. Of course, a leap into the air does not provide theaccelerationproduced by dropping out of a tree;an animal would have to run quite fast to takeoff. Still, some small terrestrial animals can achieve high speeds. The cursorial hypothesis is strengthened by the fact that theimmediate theropod dinosaurancestors of birds were terrestrial, and they had the traits needed for high lift off speeds: they were small, agile, lightlybuilt, long-legged, andgood runners. And because they werebipedal, their arms were free to evolve flappingflight, which cannot be said for other reptiles of their time.

  这篇文章总计362词,从字数上来看属于长阅读,那么这篇的GMAT阅读笔记要怎么来做呢?

  第一, 无论阅读的长短,重要的一点是无论如何要把该篇文章的首几句读懂,如果这个不懂的话,那么会严重影响后面的理解和对文章大框架的把握。

  第二, 以后每一段的首句也尽量要读懂,后面的句子要“略读”但是不代表后面的细节部分不读,相反的,一定要读,而且这是细节题快速定准位的保证。

  第三, 阅读笔记不要记得太细节,一是浪费时间,二是这反而影响你对文章大picture的把握。

  第四, 阅读笔记的作用是帮助理解文章和帮助集中注意力,不是做题指导。所以,在读完文章后,阅读笔记就基本没有用了,安心的把它放在一边吧,你对文章已经能够把握的较好了。

  第五, 做笔记的过程中,不要管语法啊,拼写啊什么的,最重要的是自己能“凑合”看懂就行。

  我是这么做的笔记的:

  第一段:2 oppsing hopsis: A and C ——point

  第二段:A:somereasons for building the hopsis, but troubing. Reasons. C: somereasons for building the hopsis, stengh by facts.

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